Meghan Markle, 37, promoted numerous celebs and activists who are known to have left-wing views.
Among the 15 front-page women is author Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, who has called for Meghan to be the next head of the Commonwealth – rather than Prince Charles, 70.
The September issue also features an interview with New Zealand’s Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern who has previously pushed for a debate on removing the Queen as the country’s head of state.
But, Meghan’s brief role with the magazine has sparked concern among critics who reminded her to stay well clear of politics.
Brexit Party MEP Ann Widdecombe told The Sun: “Royals have not only got to keep out of politics but they have got to be seen to keep out of politics.”
Ingrid Seward editor-in-chief of Majesty magazine told the publication: “The Duchess of Sussex has done a huge favour for the House of Vogie and rather less for the House of Windsor.”
Meghan is not the first royal to be involved with the fashion bible, with Princess Diana and Kate Middleton featuring on magazines front cover.
Diana made the front page three times during her lifetime, while the Duchess of Cambridge posed for Vogue’s centenary issue in 2016.
Her first official portrait by Lord Snowdon in 1981 was published in Vogue, where she was described as an “upcoming beauty”.
British Vogue’s editor-in-chief Edward Enniful said they discussed whether Meghan should be on the front cover from the very beginning
But he said, in the end, Meghan “felt that it would be in some ways a ‘boastful’ thing to do for this particular project”.
Mr Enniful added: “She wanted, instead to focus on the women she admires.