The two-masted boat was delivering cargo to Russia just after the end of the Crimean War in 1856, it is believed.
“Underwater robots” made the find at a depth of 200ft off Gogland Island, also known as Shipwreck Island, in the Gulf of Finland.
Archaeologists also came across cups, saucers, sugar bowls and Victorian-era socks made in Staffordshire and Middlesbrough.
They think the ship went down after seeking shelter from a storm en route to former capital city St Petersburg.
Gogland is the site of hundreds of shipwrecks, many of which lie on top of each other.
The Russian Geographical Society said: “Cups and saucers, sugar bowls and night potties – all those things survived by miracle after the sinking.
“They stayed at the bottom in cold and dark for over 150 years and were preserved really well.
“The artefacts were smothered in sludge.
“On the one hand, it preserved them from being affected by oxygen, on the other, art restorers have a big job to do.”
“They stayed at the bottom in cold and dark for over 150 years”
The Russian Geographical Society
Divers have not yet gained access to the hold, where more valuable goods are being stored.
They had just 30 minutes during each submersion at the site.
Roman Prokhorov, underwater archaeologist and art restorer, said of the china collection: “We found two sauce boats and some kind of a lid, maybe to cover a cake.”
Glass medicine bottles were also discovered among the wreckage.