On June 15 20 Indian soldiers were killed, and dozens more wounded, after clashing with Chinese forces in a mountainous region of the Galwan Valley. According to the Indian military China also suffered 43 casualties, though it is unclear whether any of these were killed and the figure has not been confirmed by Beijing.
Separately a US intelligence report suggested 35 Chinese soldiers lost their lives.
Another 10 Indian troops were taken prisoner and later released on June 18.
According to The Guardian the fighting involved 600 men engaged in hand-to-hand combat for up to six hours.
No firearms were used, with the two sides instead selecting iron rods, rocks and clubs as weapons.
According to the Indian military some of the Chinese troops wrapped their batons with barbed wire, or embedded them with nails, to increase their effectiveness.
Research by the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) suggests both sides have since been building up their military strength along the border.
Based on satellite images from Planet Labs, an Earth imaging firm, the IISS said 30-40 vehicles have created a temporary camp on the Indian side, whilst 100 additional trucks have pulled up on the Chinese side.
Based on this the institute estimates the Chinese have boosted their number of troops to between 1,000 and 1,500, an increase on the 500-600 usually present.
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Both China and India accuse the other of crossing the Line of Actual Control, the de facto line between the two countries.
India and China are engaged in an ongoing dispute over several areas along their mutual border, including Aksai Chin which China regards as part of its Xinjiang region.
The two powers fought a brief but bloody war in 1962 over the disputed territories, which left around 2,000 dead.